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|Title: ||仏教における「平等」と「差別」 - いかに仏教的パラダイムにおける女性差別を克服するか -|
|Other Titles: ||“Discrimination” and “Equality” in Buddhism: How Can We Overcome Infringement on Women’s Rights in Buddhist Theory?|
|Authors: ||岩瀬, 真寿美|
|Issue Date: ||2008|
|Publisher: ||名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科 教育科学専攻|
|Citation: ||教育論叢. v.51, 2008, p.1-15|
|Abstract: ||The purpose of the paper is to examine the concepts of “equality” and “discrimination” in the context of Buddhist thought and Japanese feminist theories.
In recent years, Japanese feminists have criticized practices of discrimination against women in Buddhism. First, they criticize the idea that “women can become Buddha only after they become men (strindriyam antarhitam purusendriyam ca pradurbhutam).” However, according to the Buddhist literature, the idea does not mean discrimination against women; it is a creative idea that shows a way to overcome discrimination as infringement on women’s rights. Second, feminists criticize Buddhist paternalism in Japan. According to them, paternalism does not provide women relieve from guilt unless they bring up their sons to be religious men.
To refute the second critique I examine the concept of “equality(samata)” and “discrimination (viśesa)” in four Buddhist theories. According to the first and second theories, which offer “ideas of human suffering and relief (arya-satyani catvari, pratityasamutpada), women can get relief from the suffering by detaching themselves from their own interests. The third theory provides us with “a way of seeing a difference in an apprearance as just another side of an existence (śunyata).” The theory suggests that there cannot exist differences and antagonism between men and women. The fourth theory primarily argues that the nature of Buddha belongs to each individual. It assures that people who are currently in difficult situations will get relief in the future.
The failure to distinguish discriminating practices in Buddhism from “discrimination” in Buddhist theory causes a misreading of the idea of “discrimination” in Buddhism. Buddhist theory causes a misreading of the idea of “discrimination “ in Buddhism. Buddhist theory or the idea itself do not result in discriminating practices against women. It is the way to interpret the theory that causes the discrimination. The concept of “discrimination” in Buddhist thought can be interpreted either positively or negatively. One example of its positive use is to integrate the principle of masculinity with that of femininity in our actual life.
In conclusion, I argue that by incorporating feminist theories into Buddhist theory it is possible to integrate the principle of masculinity with that of femininity, which, in the end, leads to the integration of “wisdom and perfection” with “compassion.” In doing so, Buddhist theory becomes more useful in practice.|
|Appears in Collections:||教育論叢|
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